Thursday, March 8, 2012
The Introduction of Electronic Engine Controls
Electronic Computer Control Systems make it possible for vehicle manufacturers to comply with the tougher emissions and fuel efficiency standards mandated by State and Federal Governments.
As a result of increased air pollution (smog) in large cities, such as Los Angeles, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set new regulations and air pollution standards to deal with the problem. To further complicate matters, the energy crisis of the early 1970s caused a sharp increase in fuel prices over a short period. As a result, vehicle manufacturers were not only required to comply with the new emissions standards, they also had to make their vehicles more fuel-efficient. Most vehicles were required to meet a miles-per-gallon (MPG) standard set by the U.S. Federal Government.
Precise fuel delivery and spark timing are needed to reduce vehicle emissions. Mechanical engine controls in use at the time (such as ignition points, mechanical spark advance and the carburetor) responded too slowly to driving conditions to properly control fuel delivery and spark timing. This made it difficult for vehicle manufacturers to meet the new standards.
A new Engine Control System had to be designed and integrated with the engine controls to meet the stricter standards. The new system had to:
Respond instantly to supply the proper mixture of air and fuel for any driving condition (idle, cruising, low-speed driving, high-speed driving, etc.).
Calculate instantly the best time to “ignite” the air/fuel mixture for maximum engine efficiency.
Perform both these tasks without affecting vehicle performance or fuel economy.
Vehicle Computer Control Systems can perform millions of calculations each second. This makes them an ideal substitute for the slower mechanical engine controls. By switching from mechanical to electronic engine controls, vehicle manufacturers are able to control fuel delivery and spark timing more precisely. Some newer Computer Control Systems also provide control over other vehicle functions, such as transmission, brakes, charging, body, and suspension systems.
The Basic Engine Computer Control System
The Computer Control System consists of an on-board computer and several related control devices (sensors, switches, and actuators).
The on-board computer is the heart of the Computer Control System. The computer contains several programs with preset reference values for air/fuel ratio, spark or ignition timing, injector pulse width, engine speed, etc. Separate values are provided for various driving conditions, such as idle, low speed driving, high-speed driving, low load, or high load. The preset reference values represent the ideal air/fuel mixture, spark timing, transmission gear selection, etc., for any driving condition. These values are programmed by the vehicle manufacturer, and are specific to each vehicle model.
Most on-board computers are located inside the vehicle behind the dashboard, under the passenger’s or driver’s seat, or behind the right kick panel. However, some manufacturers may still position it in the engine compartment.
Vehicle sensors, switches, and actuators are located throughout the engine, and are connected by electrical wiring to the on-board computer. These devices include oxygen sensors, coolant temperature sensors, throttle position sensors, fuel injectors, etc. Sensors and switches are input devices. They provide signals representing current engine operating conditions to the computer. Actuators are output devices. They perform actions in response to commands received from the computer.
The on-board computer receives information inputs from sensors and switches located throughout the engine. These devices monitor critical engine conditions such as coolant temperature, engine speed, engine load, throttle position, air/fuel ratio etc.
The computer compares the values received from these sensors with its preset reference values, and makes corrective actions as needed so that the sensor values always match the preset reference values for the current driving condition. The computer makes adjustments by commanding other devices such as the fuel injectors, idle air control, EGR valve or Ignition Module to perform these actions.
Vehicle operating conditions are constantly changing. The computer continuously makes adjustments or corrections (especially to the air/fuel mixture and spark timing) to keep all the engine systems operating within the preset reference values.