OBD Knowledge

Mar 08

I/M Readiness

Thursday, March 8, 2012

I/M is an Inspection and Maintenance program legislated by the Government to meet federal clean-air standards.

The program requires that a vehicle be taken periodically to an Emissions Station for an “Emissions Test” or “Smog Check,” where the emissions-related components and systems are inspected and tested for proper operation. Emissions Tests are generally performed once a year, or once every two years.

On OBD2 systems, the I/M program is enhanced by requiring vehicles to meet stricter test standards. One of the tests instituted by the Federal Government is called I/M 240. On I/M 240, the vehicle under test is driven under different speeds and load conditions on a dynamometer for 240 seconds, while the vehicle’s emissions are measured.

(NOTE) Emissions tests vary depending on the geographic or regional area in which the vehicle is registered. If the vehicle is registered in a highly urbanized area, the I/M 240 is probably the type of test required. If the vehicle is registered in a rural area, the stricter “dynamometer type” test may not be required.

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I/M Readiness Monitor Status

I/M Readiness shows whether the various emissions-related systems on the vehicle are operating properly and are ready for Inspection and Maintenance testing.

State and Federal Governments enacted Regulations, Procedures and Emission Standards to ensure that all emissions-related components and systems are continuously or periodically monitored, tested and diagnosed whenever the vehicle is in operation. It also requires vehicle manufacturers to automatically detect and report any problems or faults that may increase the vehicle’s emissions to an unacceptable level.

The vehicle’s emissions control system consists of several components or sub-systems (Oxygen Sensor, Catalytic Converter, EGR, Fuel System, etc.) that aid in reducing vehicle emissions.

To have an efficient Vehicle Emission Control System, all the emissions-related components and systems must work correctly whenever the vehicle is in operation.

To comply with State and Federal Government regulations, vehicle manufacturers designed a series of special computer programs called “Monitors” that are programmed into the vehicle’s computer. Each of these Monitors is specifically designed to run tests and diagnostics on a specific emissions-related component or system (Oxygen Sensor, Catalytic Converter, EGR Valve, Fuel System, etc.) to ensure their proper operation. Currently, there are a maximum of eleven Monitors available for use.

(NOTE) Each Monitor has a specific function to test and diagnose only its designated emissions-related component or system. The names of the Monitors (Oxygen Sensor Monitor, Catalyst Monitor, EGR Monitor, Misfire Monitor, etc.) describe which component or system each Monitor is designed to test and diagnose.

I/M Readiness Monitor Status shows which of the vehicle’s Monitors have run and completed their diagnosis and testing, and which ones have not yet run and completed testing and diagnosis of their designated sections of the vehicle’s emissions system.

·         If a Monitor was able to meet all the conditions required to enable it to perform the self-diagnosis and testing of its assigned engine system, it means the monitor “HAS RUN.”

·         If a Monitor has not yet met all the conditions required for it to perform the self-diagnosis and testing of its assigned engine system; it means the Monitor “HAS NOT RUN.”

(NOTE) The Monitor Run/Not Run status does not show whether or not a problem exists in a system. Monitor status only indicates whether a particular Monitor has or has not run and performed the self-diagnosis and testing of its associated system.

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When a vehicle first comes from the factory, all Monitors indicate a “HAVE RUN” status. This indicates that all Monitors have run and completed their diagnostic testing. The “HAVE RUN” status remains in the computer’s memory, unless the Diagnostic Trouble Codes are erased or the vehicle’s computer memory is cleared.

Before an Emissions Test (Smog Check) can be performed, your vehicle must meet certain rules, requirements and procedures legislated by the Federal and state (country) governments where you live.

1.  In most areas, one of the requirements that must be met before a vehicle is allowed to be Emissions Tested (Smog Checked) is that the vehicle does not have any Diagnostic Trouble Codes present (with the exception of PENDING Diagnostic Trouble Codes).

2.  In addition to the requirement that no Diagnostic Trouble Codes be present, some areas also require that all the Monitors that a particular vehicle supports indicate a “Has Run” status condition before an Emissions Check may be performed.

3.  Other areas may only require that some (but not all) Monitors indicate a “Has Run” status before an Emissions Test (Smog Check) may be performed.

(NOTE) Monitors with a “Has Run” status indicate that all the required conditions they needed to perform diagnosis and testing of their assigned engine area (system) have been met, and all diagnostic testing has completed successfully.

(NOTE) Monitors with a “Has Not Run” status have not yet met the conditions they need to perform diagnosis and testing of their assigned engine area (system), and have not been able to perform diagnostic testing on that system.